Title Information

Handbook of Paleoherpetology

Part 8

MCGOWAN, Christopher & Ryosuke MOTANI:

Ichthyopterygia

Contents

Preface IV
Acknowledgments IV
Institutional Abbreviations V
Measurements and Definitions of Features VI
Skull VI
Fins VI
Forefin VI
Axial Skeleton VI
Table of Contents VII
Introduction 1
Anatomy of a Typical Ichthyosaur 5
Vertebral Column 5
Atlas-Axis Complex 7
Remaining Presacral Vertebrae 10
Caudal Vertebrae 12
Identifying Vertebrae 16
Taxonomic Use of Vertebrae 16
Ribs 17
Skull 20
Skull Roof 20
Temporal Region 22
Orbit and Scleral Ring 23
Basicranium and Otic Capsule 25
Palate 29
Mandible 29
Dentition 31
Hyoid 32
Forefin 32
Humerus 32
Remainder of the Forefin 34
Pectoral Girdle 37
Pelvic Girdle 39
Pelvic Fin 41
Femur 41
Anatomical Diversification 45
Overview of Four Body Plans and Intermediates 45
Review of Body Part Evolution 48
Stratigraphy 58
Lower Triassic 58
Middle Triassic 58
Upper Triassic 58
Lower Jurassic 59
Middle Jurassic 59
Upper Jurassic 59
Lower Cretaceous 59
Upper Cretaceous 59
Systematic Paleontology 63
1. Recognized Genera and Species 63
Superorder Ichthyopterygia OWEN, 1840 63
Family incertae sedis 63
Family Parvinatatoridae nov. 63
Family Utatsusauridae nov. 64
(Unranked) Eoichthyosauria MOTANI, 1999B 64
Order Grippidia WIMAN, 1929 64
Family Grippiidae WIMAN, 1933 64
Order Ichthyosauria BLAINVILLE, 1835 65
Family Cymbospondylidae HUENE, 1948 65
(Unranked) Hueneosauria MAISCH et MATZKE, 2000B 66
Suborder Mixosauria MOTANI, 1999B 67
Family Mixosauridae BAUR, 1887A 67
Suborder Merriamosauriformes nov. 69
Family incertae sedis 69
Family Guanlingsauridae YIN et al., 2000 70
Family Besanosauridae nov. 70
(Unranked) Merriamosauria MOTANI, 1999B 70
Infraorder Shastasauria MOTANI, 1999B 70
Family Shastasauridae MERRIAM, 1902 70
Infraorder Euichthyosauria MOTANI, 1999B 72
Family incertae sedis 72
Family Toretocnemidae MAISCH et MATZKE, 2000B 72
Family Californosauridae HUENE, 1948 73
(Unranked) Parvipelvia MOTANI, 1999B 73
Family Macgowaniidae nov. 73
Family Hudsonelpidiidae nov. 73
Family Suevoleviathanidae MAISCH et MATZKE, 2000B 73
Suprafamily Leptonectoidea nov. 75
Family Leptonectidae MAISCH, 1998A 75
Suprafamily Temnodontosauroidea nov. 83
Family Temnodontosauridae MCGOWAN, 1974A 83
Superfamily Ichthyosauroidea nov. 90
Family incertae sedis 90
Family Ichthyosauridae BONAPARTE, 1841 91
Family Stenopterygiidae KUHN, 1934 96
Family Ophthalmosauridae BAUR, 1887 107
2. Species inquirendae (listed alphabetically) 125
3. Nomina dubia 129
Genera 129
Species 129
4. Nomina nuda 139
5. Non-ichthyosaurian 139
Phylogeny and higher taxonomy 141
Outgroup 141
Ingroup Relationships 141
Functional morphology and biomechanics 147
Basic Principles 147
Swimming of Stenopterygius 147
Vision and Bio-optics 148
Body Mass 148
Alphabetic Listing of Taxonomic Names 150
Genera and Subgenera 150
Species and Subspecies 151
Categorized Listing of Taxonomic Names 156
Valid Names 156
Genera 156
Species 156
Species inquirendae 157
Nomina dubia 157
Genera 157
Species and Subspecies 157
Nomina nuda 158
Homonyms 158
Synonyms 158
Genera 158
Species and Subspecies 158
Non-Ichthyosaurian 159
Other 159
Character Matrix and Description 160
Literature Cited 165
Index of Genera 175

Editorial Preface

The present volume marks a change in editorship. After a long and distinguished career, Dr. Peter WELLNHOFER has recently retired from his post at the Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie (München), and asked me to assume the editorship of the series. I would like to thank him for his hard work on the parts published during his tenure, and will work to uphold the high editorial standards set by him. During Dr. WELLNHOFER’s term, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil assumed the responsibility for the publication of the Handbuch der Paläoherpetologie. This change in publishing house has had a beneficial effect on production quality and commercial promotion of the volumes. I am grateful to Dr. Friedrich PFEIL for his continuing interest in and enthusiastic support of the project.

I would like to announce two editorial changes. First, starting with the present volume, all remaining parts of this series (as well as planned revisions of already published volumes) will review taxa in an explicitly cladistic framework. Contributors will be asked to provide the character-taxon matrices that they have compiled and used to develop phylogenetic hypotheses of the interrelationships of the taxa under discussion. Second, the English version of the original German series title Handbuch der Paläoherpetologie has been changed to the more correct Handbook of Paleoherpetology, matching that of the corresponding series, the Handbook of Paleoichthyology.

H.-D. SUES

Sample pages

page 1 page 41 page 46 page 63 page 84
page 86 page 99 page 121 page 129 page 142

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